Fennia - International Journal of Geography https://fennia.journal.fi/ <p align="left">FENNIA is a non-profit peer-review journal published by the Geographical Society of Finland since 1889. It is an international scientific publication dedicated to all fields of geography with attentiveness to northern dimensions. In 2010, FENNIA became an open access electronic journal with two yearly issues. It is devoted to a fast publication process, including the open access publication of forthcoming papers before inclusion in an issue. The journal has no submission or article processing charges, and authors ratain all rights to their work throughout the publication process and after publication. We also offer the opportunity to publish short, popularized texts based on research articles through the <a href="https://www.versuslehti.fi/english/">Versus</a> platform that aims to make research more visible, dialogical and effective in societies.</p> <p align="left">FENNIA publishes papers of high scholarly merit in three categories: Research Papers, Reviews and Essays, and Reflections.&nbsp;Research Papers are original full-length articles that make a significant contribution to geographic and related research. Reviews and Essays introduce empirical, theoretical or methodological insights from ongoing research, including literature reviews and lectures. Reflections section includes commentaries, debates, discussion pieces, interventions and other argumentative short texts related to contemporary issues. With these three publication formats, FENNIA seeks to take forward geographical research and discussion in a critical and responsible spirit. In addition to individual contributions, the journal welcomes proposals for special issues and sections.</p> <p align="left">The fully open access FENNIA publications are under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>). The journal is member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (<a href="http://publicationethics.org/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">COPE</a>) and follows the peer review standards set by the Federation of Finnish Learned Societies (<a href="http://www.tsv.fi/en/services/label-for-peer-reviewed-scholarly-publications" target="_blank" rel="noopener">TSV</a><a href="http://ip-science.thomsonreuters.com/cgi-bin/jrnlst/jlresults.cgi?PC=MASTER&amp;Word=fennia" target="_self">)</a>. It is indexed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (<a href="https://doaj.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>) and&nbsp;the Thomson Reuters Emerging Sources Citation Index (<a href="http://ip-science.thomsonreuters.com/cgi-bin/jrnlst/jlresults.cgi?PC=MASTER&amp;Word=fennia" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ESCI</a>), and is part of the <a href="http://freejournals.org/">Free Journal Network</a>. The main language of the journal is English.</p> Geographical Society of Finland en-US Fennia - International Journal of Geography 1798-5617 <p>Authors who publish with FENNIA agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.&nbsp;The license of the published metadata is Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).&nbsp;&nbsp;</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a doctoral dissertation or book compilation), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> Geographies of welcome https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/76817 <p>N/A</p> Kirsi Pauliina Kallio James Riding ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-28 2018-11-28 196 2 131 136 10.11143/fennia.76817 Local responses to state-led municipal reform in the Finnish-Swedish border region: conflicting development discourses, culture and institutions https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/69890 <p>This paper scrutinises the intersections and collisions of different development discourses in the Kemi-Tornio sub-region which lies alongside the Finnish-Swedish border within the political context of municipal reform initiated by the Finnish government in 2011–2015. By drawing on cultural political economy and institutional regional theory, this paper studies how local actors utilize different development discourses produced at (and producing) different scales to justify or contest the municipal amalgamation within the Kemi-Tornio region. In addition, the specific interest is on the how local institutional environment, and border location in particular, are mobilized and strategically used in these processes. The results, based on policy documents and qualitative interviews with key municipal actors, highlight the coexistence of three different, yet overlapping development discourses. While some municipal actors support the state-led development discourse with justification of economic reasoning, there is a strong opposing discourse emphasising the region’s history, identity and municipal self-autonomy. The latter, interestingly, resonates with the EU’s cross-border co-operation discourse; offering an alternative development strategy. Together with the path-dependent regional history, this intersection creates unbalanced power relations between municipalities both with and without a state border. Thus, this paper illustrates how different scalar discourses and institutional structures are actively utilized in municipal reform processes.</p> Fredriika Jakola ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 196 2 137 153 10.11143/fennia.69890 The commons and emergent land in Kvarken Archipelago, Finland: governing an expanding recreational resource https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/69022 <p>In this article, we explore governance structures of the recreational landscape of Kvarken Archipelago in Western Finland, an area where shore displacement occurs due to land rise and emergent (pristine) land is continuously created. Traditionally a production landscape, of fishing and small-scale agriculture, the recreational value of the archipelago has been acknowledged. The area is a popular second home destination and was designated UNESCO World Heritage in 2006. There are roughly 10,000 second homes within the study area, of which 14% are leaseholds located on emergent land. The emergent land thus makes up a common-pool resource system where private and collective use rights overlap. This article aims to understand the implications for recreational use (second home ownership) through interviews with different local stakeholders such as municipality planners, representatives of commons, local communities, and with environmental and land survey authorities. Especially, it sets out to ask, what kinds of value are created within the recreational resource system, what power relationships within the commons steer the management of the recreational resource system, and what are the implications for recreational use of the landscape. The results show different logics of recreational resource management locally in the studied commons. Access to second homes located within the collectively owned emergent land is limited to part-owners of the commons and tend to be less commercialized and also less modernized than privately owned second home plots.</p> Kristina Svels, PhD, Senior Researcher Ulrika Åkerlund, PhD, Senior Lecturer ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-18 2018-11-18 196 2 154 167 10.11143/fennia.69022 Perfect food: perspectives on consumer perceptions of fresh produce quality https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/65645 <p>Over the past century, the global food system has largely shifted from a localized, decentralized agricultural model to more centralized, industrial food production system. Corresponding with this shift was a change in consumer preferences, an expectation for “perfect” fruits and vegetables that has contributed to a significant problem with wasted food. An alternative food system, aimed at providing locally-grown, sustainable produce has countered this model and has sought to reconnect consumers and producers. At the same time, this alternative model still exists within a larger agricultural system dominated by industrial production and standardization. This paper examines how the changes in the ways consumers look at fresh produce quality has affected the practices of retailers and drives food waste at the supply chain using in-depth interviews conducted in a variety of settings in Fredericksburg, Virginia, USA. An analysis of these interview findings reveals that even in alternative food buying locations, consumers have a general expectation of perfection but that as consumers build relationships with the people who grow their food, these perceptions, and our food waste practices, might be changed.</p> Caitlin Finlayson ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-19 2018-11-19 196 2 168 186 10.11143/fennia.65645 Why save a minority language? Meänkieli and rationales of language revitalization https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/74047 <p>This article examines the rationales for language revitalization and their materialization on a local scale. The starting premise is that, due to specific social, cultural, as well as spatial circumstances, there exists a wide variety of rationalizations for why saving endangered languages is important. The complexity of the matter is discussed with regard to Meänkieli, a minority language spoken in northern Sweden, which has a long and unique history of marginalization. The article bases on group discussions conducted with Meänkieli speaking cultural activists in northern Sweden during the fall of 2015 and the spring of 2016. The present examination of the group discussions reveals how the rationales of saving the language are inherently interrelated with questions concerning identity formation, educational principles and the sovereignty of minority groups. The analysis also reveals how, due to the complex nature of local history, there is no consensus on whether the recent progress in language revitalization is unanimously a positive change or not.</p> Juha Ridanpää ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-28 2018-11-28 196 2 187 203 10.11143/fennia.74047 Studying brownfields: governmentality, the post-political, or non-essential materialism? https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/70295 <p>This paper sets out to evaluate several common theoretical frameworks employed in critical studies of brownfield redevelopment. Specifically, it analyzes the relevance of governmentality, the post-political, and non-essentialist materialism in that context. To do so, it explores how these theoretical frameworks map on to Bridgeport, Connecticut’s <em>BGreen 2020</em>, and its approach to the redevelopment of vacant and underutilized land – and brownfields more specifically. It argues that these frameworks come up short when applied to this empirical case because they put forth untenable ontological claims regarding the constitution of the subject and political agency. Going further, it asserts that these frameworks fail to identify a way forward for those seeking emancipatory political interventions in the context of brownfield redevelopment and urban environmental politics. In closing this paper suggests that Jason W. Moore's recent writing on “capitalism as world-ecology” can provide a way forward where these other frameworks fail.</p> William Conroy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-07 2018-11-07 196 2 204 214 10.11143/fennia.70295 Welcome, its suppression, and the in-between spaces of refugee sub-citizenship – commentary to Gill https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/70999 <p>This article argues that geographies of welcome complicate simple binary oppositions between fully enfranchised citizenship and what is often theorized as the ‘bare life’ of refugee rejection in ‘spaces of exception’. Ranging from sanctuary cities and squats to clinics, classrooms, kitchens and gardens, spaces of welcome instead offer islands of limited enfranchisement, agency and hope amidst seas of sub-citizenship, subjugation and fear. The concept of sub-citizenship can be used thus to elucidate how welcome and its suppression create a spectrum of intermediate experiences between the abstract poles of biopolitical belonging and necropolitical rejection. Geographies of welcome thereby become legible as in-between spaces in which the damage done by the suppression of welcome is contested and countered, however incompletely.</p> Matthew Brookman Sparke ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-17 2018-06-17 196 2 215 219 10.11143/fennia.70999 The fragility of welcome – commentary to Gill https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/75756 <p>In this commentary, I take Nick Gill’s discussion of the ‘suppression of welcome’ and the politics of hospitality, as a starting point for reflection on how ‘cultures of welcome’ are produced. In exploring the work of those supporting asylum seekers and refugees in Sheffield, UK, I argue that welcome may encompass a range of practices, with varying levels of intention and recognition attached. Yet what draws these practices together are two factors, first, a positive engagement with difference that holds the potential to promote solidaristic, or at the very least non-violent, relations. And second, a fragility that means that welcome is always at risk of being suppressed or commandeered for other purposes. In considering the implications of the ‘suppression of welcome’, I argue for a focus on <em>welcoming</em> as a negotiated process that involves varying durations, demands and levels of commitment.</p> Jonathan Darling ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 196 2 220 224 10.11143/fennia.75756 Envisioning human security – commentary to Gill https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/76029 <p>Prompted by Nick Gill’s review essay, ‘The suppression of welcome’, this commentary additionally reflects on attendant questions of security and responsibility in seeking to conceptualize a more human-centred vision of populations and population management in our current moment of refugee crisis in Europe. It charts how we might productively conceptualize and enact a ‘human security’ vision of population management, how such a vision requires us to think differently and cooperatively about security, and ultimately how this compels us to supplant a prevailing narrative of external threat and risk with a story of shared precarity, human empathy and collective responsibility.</p> John Morrissey ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 196 2 225 229 10.11143/fennia.76029 Conditional welcome and the ambivalent self – commentary to Gill https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/76101 <p>This brief reflection is written from the standpoint that much of the witnessed suppression of welcome derives from either a lack of fully understanding, or misunderstanding, the reasons for and circumstances of the perceived crisis, as well as of the histories and motivations of the people who have arrived in Europe in great numbers. Rather than simply depicting the governmental perspective in opposition to that of the people, the argument put forth here is rather that the reactions to this extraordinary situation have been torn at best, and it is the mounting polarization, rather than the immigrants as such, that are putting Europe’s democracies, social model, cooperation as well as values to the test. The anxieties caused by immigration have become intertwined with deep insecurities triggered by originally unrelated societal changes, whereby the question of the suppression of welcome has a lot to do with the difficulty in finding an appropriate balance with one’s own benefits, preferences of association and responsibilities towards others. Efforts need to be taken to debunk tenacious false narratives about migration, and to provoke debate in a fashion that will lead to a nuanced understanding of the root causes and motivating factors behind the migrant flows, as this would enable us to take proper action in addressing them.</p> Jussi P Laine ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-11 2018-11-11 196 2 230 235 10.11143/fennia.76101 Who welcomes? The geographies of refugee aid as care work – commentary to Gill https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/76588 <p>Drawing on my recent research with aid workers in Jordan and Lebanon, as well as on examples from Greece and Italy, in this commentary I propose the concept of care work as one of the possible ways to achieve a grounded critical understanding of welcome, one that goes beyond solidarity versus institutionalization, bureaucracy versus generosity and state versus civil society dichotomies. Framing the issue in such a way means asking three fundamental questions: not only, as Gill poignantly does, <em>what is welcome</em>, but also <em>where is welcome</em> actually located and, most importantly, <em>who welcomes</em>. These questions illuminate the many overlooked forms of affective and physical labour without which state-centred, institutional, and internationally organized aid and “welcome” would not be possible. The task, I contend, is to unearth the labour of care that the governance of migration and refuge requires, labour that is mostly feminized, racialized, and precarious. By illuminating the forms of care and interdependencies upon which the reproduction of our societies depends – in all its aspects, including border regimes – this perspective opens up an emancipatory pathway to the politicization of welcoming and aid to migrants and refugees, alternative to humanitarian discourses.</p> Elisa Pascucci ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-28 2018-11-28 196 2 236 238 10.11143/fennia.76588