Fennia - International Journal of Geography https://fennia.journal.fi/ <p align="left">FENNIA is a non-profit peer-review journal published by the Geographical Society of Finland since 1889. It is an international scientific publication dedicated to all fields of geography with attentiveness to northern dimensions. In 2010, FENNIA became an open access electronic journal with two yearly issues. It is devoted to a fast publication process, including the open access publication of forthcoming papers before inclusion in an issue. The journal has no submission or article processing charges, and authors ratain all rights to their work throughout the publication process and after publication. We also offer the opportunity to publish short, popularized texts based on research articles through the <a href="https://www.versuslehti.fi/english/">Versus</a> platform that aims to make research more visible, dialogical and effective in societies.</p> <p align="left">FENNIA publishes papers of high scholarly merit in three categories: Research Papers, Reviews and Essays, and Reflections.&nbsp;Research Papers are original full-length articles that make a significant contribution to geographic and related research. Reviews and Essays introduce empirical, theoretical or methodological insights from ongoing research, including literature reviews and lectures. Reflections section includes commentaries, debates, discussion pieces, interventions and other argumentative short texts related to contemporary issues. With these three publication formats, FENNIA seeks to take forward geographical research and discussion in a critical and responsible spirit. In addition to individual contributions, the journal welcomes proposals for special issues and sections.</p> <p align="left">The fully open access FENNIA publications are under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>). The journal is member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (<a href="http://publicationethics.org/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">COPE</a>) and follows the peer review standards set by the Federation of Finnish Learned Societies (<a href="http://www.tsv.fi/en/services/label-for-peer-reviewed-scholarly-publications" target="_blank" rel="noopener">TSV</a><a href="http://ip-science.thomsonreuters.com/cgi-bin/jrnlst/jlresults.cgi?PC=MASTER&amp;Word=fennia" target="_self">)</a>. It is indexed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (<a href="https://doaj.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>) and&nbsp;the Thomson Reuters Emerging Sources Citation Index (<a href="http://ip-science.thomsonreuters.com/cgi-bin/jrnlst/jlresults.cgi?PC=MASTER&amp;Word=fennia" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ESCI</a>), and is part of the <a href="http://freejournals.org/">Free Journal Network</a>. The main language of the journal is English.</p> Geographical Society of Finland en-US Fennia - International Journal of Geography 1798-5617 <p>Authors who publish with FENNIA agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.&nbsp;The license of the published metadata is Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).&nbsp;&nbsp;</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a doctoral dissertation or book compilation), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> Open policies, open practices – open attitudes? https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/80428 <p>N/A</p> Kirsi Pauliina Kallio James Riding Copyright (c) 2019 Kirsi Pauliina Kallio; James Riding https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 1 7 10.11143/fennia.80428 Governing the future and the search for spatial justice: Wales’ Well-being of Future Generations Act https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/77781 <p>Recent contributions in Geography and beyond have examined historical and more contemporary efforts to govern the future. Work in this area has highlighted some important conceptual considerations by drawing attention to the way in which states, regions and other organisations view the future as an object of governance for a variety of reasons: as something that constitutes a threat that needs to be managed; as something that can be predicted, thus leading to an improvement in governance; as something that allows a more hopeful and just society, economy and environment to be expressed (and achieved). In this paper, I use this context as a way of making an argument for the need to: 1) consider more explicitly the many geographies associated with governing the future; and 2) explore how these geographies might impact on the definition and promotion of spatial justice. I illustrate these arguments through an empirical discussion of the development and implementation of Wales’ Well-being of Future Generations Act, an Act that seeks to create a better and more just Wales by the year 2050. I conclude by exhorting geographers to take the lead in exploring the impact that geographical themes might have on states’ and regions’ attempts to achieve spatial justice in the present and the future.</p> Rhys Jones Copyright (c) 2019 Rhys Jones https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 8 24 10.11143/fennia.77781 Land for agriculture? Conflicts and synergies between land use in two parts of Scandinavia https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/63074 <p class="Normaltext" style="line-height: 150%;">When space is limited, there is often conflict over land use such as agriculture, nature conservation, housing, business and commercial enterprise. More knowledge is needed about the substance of such conflicts and the way the various uses are handled and spatially organised. Using empirical material collected in Hållnäs, Sweden, and Sandnes, Norway, between 2009 and 2012, this paper addresses the potential conflicts and synergies between the different uses of land, with agriculture as a reference point. In combining and comparing the results from Hållnäs and Sandnes, the way in which relations differ between them are also scrutinised. Through planning documents, interviews with officials in public authorities, active farmers, non-governmental organisations (NGO) and field visits, case-specific land uses are identified in the two areas. The conflicting and synergetic relations between agriculture and other ways the land is used are identified and illustrated by schematic models. The results indicate that agriculture is both in synergy and in conflict with other land uses. In the cases investigated in this study, the primary areas of conflict are between agriculture and biodiversity, between agriculture and cultural heritage, and between agriculture and climate-smart initiatives in terms of dense building structures.</p> Elin Slätmo Copyright (c) 2019 Elin Slätmo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 25 39 10.11143/fennia.63074 The long-term adaptation of a resource periphery as narrated by local policy-makers in Lieksa https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/74368 <p>The paper’s general objective is to question the point of view whereby peripheries are seen only through a static downturn with no reflections on dynamicity or adaptation. The focus is set on the standpoints of actors in local government and their interface with the broader structures. The aim is to create a productive dialogue with evolutionary economic geography studies paying attention to actors and resilience studies where the human perspectives in adaptation are emphasised. The town of Lieksa, Finland, is used as a case study to exemplify a forest resource periphery located in relative isolation at the regional and national scale, but within a developed economy in Europe. The results, based on interviews with key local policy-makers, show that development did not stop at the time of the first bust despite the domination of the downturn. The study reveals two waves of restructuring which both include a type of regional bust followed by different kinds of institutional recovery. In general, the human adaptation appears as reactions reflecting the variation of giving up, forward-looking acceptance, desperate resistance, re-orientation with external support and search for renewal with an optimistic attitude. Above all, the resilience regarding the local governmental actors emphasises their flexible adaptability and ability to develop institutional capacities to tolerate their vulnerability, the uncertainties of the economic future and the difficulties of locals to influence it – and if anything – to act and bounce forward in spite of repetitive busts and restructuring phases. </p> Maija Elina Halonen Copyright (c) 2019 Maija Elina Halonen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 40 57 10.11143/fennia.74368 Lakes, presidents and shopping on mental maps: children’s perceptions of the Finnish–Russian border and the borderland https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/73208 <p>The Finnish–Russian borderland has transformed in the last three decades from two isolated national territories into a transition zone, where the ‘other’ culture and society is ever more present. This paper analyses what kinds of perceptions Finnish and Russian children have of the border and the borderland today. It also examines children’s territorial identifications in the borderland. The research is based on 263 mental maps collected from 9–15-year-old children in the cities of Lappeenranta (Finland) and Vyborg (Russia) and the village of Pervomayskoe (Russia) between 2013 and 2017. The analysis of the maps illustrates that the children participating in the study perceive the Finnish–Russian border mainly as a place for border crossings, although they continue to use the border as a tool for constructing socio-spatial distinctions. In this way, the children actively participate in processes of bordering and play an important part in the social life of the borderland. The participants’ perceptions of the borderland are connected to the national and local contexts that they live in but vary widely between individuals. The paper argues that the local border-related phenomena and children’s border-crossing experiences are increasingly relevant for their national and local identification processes. Besides providing novel information regarding Finnish and Russian children’s perceptions and identifications in the Finnish–Russian borderland, the paper adjusts the mental mapping method to a borderland context and enhances our understanding of the complexity of the bordering processes taking place in borderlands.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Popular article based on the paper, with commentaries, is published in <a href="https://www.versuslehti.fi/tiededebatti/lasten-alueelliset-mielikuvat-ja-identiteetit-muutoksessa-suomen-ja-venajan-raja-alueella/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Versus Research Dabate</a>.</em></p> Virpi Kaisto Olga Brednikova Copyright (c) 2019 Virpi Kaisto, Olga Brednikova https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 58 76 10.11143/fennia.73208 Palestinian children: a transformation of national identity in the Abbas era https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/71009 <p>The constant rendering of Palestinian national identity provides crucial insight not only to the current Palestinian community’s political status, but also to past and the future experiences. National identity echoes the intersectionality of history and local politics. For the last few decades, Palestinian national identity has been evolving with continuous alteration that encompasses local political discourse in the Palestinian community. Whereas it once embraced unity among different political ideologies, a shift occurred with Hamas election victory in 2006, which resulted in the division of the Palestinian community, whereby the Palestinian Authority, under Abbas leadership is ruling the West Bank, and Hamas is governing the Gaza Strip. This political tension has served to render national identity. Palestinian children echoed such politics in the construction of their national identity through their interpretation of personal experiences that are intertwined with current political events. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to show how Palestinian children articulated national identity in a post-Arafat/Abbas era, recognizing that national identity is not static.</p> Janette Habashi Copyright (c) 2019 Janette Habashi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 77 93 10.11143/fennia.71009 Life satisfaction among inbound university students in northern Sweden https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/70337 <p>Will life satisfaction among international students change after having an experience of studying abroad? Some previous studies indicate inequalities and issues of social mobility embedded in international student mobility. International student mobility implies physical movement and new experiences gained while studying abroad. The ubiquity of international students and their generally successful adaptation makes it necessary to understand how they manage to turn a seemingly difficult situation into satisfying adaptation. One area of such concern that this study sought to explore was the students’ level of satisfaction with life. This study investigated the self-reported life satisfaction of inbound university students upon arrival to a university in northern Sweden and at follow-up six months later. After the study period abroad, the students’ levels of perceived satisfaction with their somatic health and activities of daily living had significantly increased. Higher levels, while non-significant, were found for the domains life as a whole, study situation and economy. These findings may indicate that studying abroad could have an impact on students’ reported life satisfaction, which highlights the value of a period of studying abroad. However, when exploring life satisfaction outcomes among internationally mobile students, it seems pertinent to study student mobility within a context. This study mostly targets international student mobility in a Western/European context. </p> Per Anders Nilsson Britt-Marie Stålnacke Copyright (c) 2019 Per Anders Nilsson, Britt-Marie Stålnacke https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 94 107 10.11143/fennia.70337 A time-geographical mixed-methods approach: studying the complexities of energy and water use in households https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/68860 <p>The objective of this study is to describe and assess a methodology based on a time geographical approach for studying energy and water use in households. Energy and water resources are often used in routinized activities, and in activities considered as private, normal and ordinary, which makes them difficult to explore in research. In this article, we give an account of a mixed-methods approach using time diaries, metering data, interviews and simple observations, and analyse and discuss its methodological and empirical implications from two Swedish case studies. We conclude that the suggested combination of methods, despite some complications, provides a comprehensive account of household energy and water use to which various theoretical perspectives could apply. Energy and water using activities are defined in terms of time, place, quantity, material and social context, and are related to user perspectives on resource use and usage data. Such knowledge provides important input for information campaigns, technological retrofitting and other systemic changes in striving towards sustainability.</p> Helena Köhler Kristina Trygg Copyright (c) 2019 Helena Köhler, Kristina Trygg https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 108 120 10.11143/fennia.68860 Generalization, epistemology and concrete: what can social sciences learn from the common sense of engineers https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/77626 <p>In this essay I debate critically, and somehow playfully, some assumptions and shortcomings of quantitative/positivist social research, using a dash of common sense typical of engineers. Civil engineers, in designing concrete structures, particularly those made up of concrete, have to continuously consider the error embedded in the limits of available systems of calculation, ending up adopting substantial factors of safety as counter-measures. The study of resistance of concrete structures is a good metaphor for social research; and yet, quantitative/positivist researchers, in their search for “falsifiable generalizations”, often forget about the omnipresence of error, let alone adopt the factors of safety. In short, the common sense of engineers is useful to casts some not-so-frequently-considered doubts over the capacity of quantitative methods and positivist epistemologies to create generalizable social science findings in face of uncertainty and the complexity of human societies. By casting such doubts, I advocate for a more relaxed (but not less rigorous) approach to social research and its complexity.</p> Simone Tulumello Copyright (c) 2019 Simone Tulumello https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 121 131 10.11143/fennia.77626 Governing political spaces through “future work” – commentary to Jones https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/80205 <p>This reflections article is a comment upon Rhys Jones’ paper (in this issue) which deals with the geographies of the governance of the future. I suggest that the constant production of governmental imaginaries dealing with the future should be understood as “future work” that is an essential dimension of a broader phenomenon of “territory work” whereby processes of re-territorialization and de-territorialization come together. The active attempt to “know” and cope with the future should be understood as an essential constituent of all governing activities without which the rationality of governance would lose much of its meaning. Governance of the future, as it occurs in governmental practices and associated imaginaries that translate the future into a governable object, is an essential dimension in the ongoing remaking of territories of wealth, power and belonging. This process merits more geographical examination and commentary.</p> Sami Moisio Copyright (c) 2019 Sami Moisio https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 132 136 10.11143/fennia.80205 Governing a just future: what and how to govern? – commentary to Jones https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/80208 <p>In dealing with the topic of “governing the future”, it is fundamental to understand how different practices define justice in content as well as in processual sense. Premises of justification can be seen as essential indicators of the future direction of societal decision-making in governance networks, as well as in determining whose realities play a part when defining future imaginaries. We are dealing with a complex entity and we need to ask whether a future as such can be distinguished from how it is produced in different governing practices? I would also like to emphasize that the concept of ‘governance’ needs to be taken under careful scrutiny. Governance has not replaced government, as most often both of these management logics are present simultaneously. This is creating tensions within the public sector. My comments to the issues presented in Rhys Jones’ article (in this issue) are grounded in planning theory and my ongoing research concerning justification of new spatial planning practices in the Nordic countries.</p> Pia Bäcklund Copyright (c) 2019 Pia Bäcklund https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 137 140 10.11143/fennia.80208 Future as an object of governance – commentary to Jones https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/80372 <p>In this commentary, I reflect Rhys Jones’ (in this issue) suggestion for geographers to take part in exploring and enabling the most effective governmental configurations for just futures. Starting from a Foucauldian perspective on governance as a problematizing activity, I bring to the fore that the future is not something that waits out there to be seized by rulers but a social and political construction dictated by the conditions of the present. Moreover, I also highlight that a conventional scalar framework is not sufficient for understanding complex networks of governance in an increasingly globalized policy world. Accordingly, in studying the future as an object of governance we need to be aware of the engagement of nationally/regionally situated policies with prevailing power relations which extend well beyond the territorial boundaries of governance and which regulate our capacities to imagine the future(s). This is of utmost importance for geographers entering the policy world.</p> Juho Luukkonen Copyright (c) 2019 Juho Luukkonen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 141 144 10.11143/fennia.80372 Governing the future: perspectives from literary studies – commentary to Jones https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/80379 <p>Taking its cue from Rhys Jones’s article “Governing the future and the search for spatial justice: Wales’ Well-being of Future Generations Act”, this commentary reflects on some of the challenges attached to attempts to govern the future. It proposes perspectives from literature and literary studies to enrich how we imagine the future. This commentary maps out how literary fiction and other forms of future storytelling associated with qualia – the “how it feels” of future possible worlds – may provide an important complementary to other, more distancing, modes of envisioning the future.</p> Lieven Ameel Copyright (c) 2019 Lieven Ameel https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 145 148 10.11143/fennia.80379 Geopolitical lives of children – commentary to Habashi https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/80159 <p>I write this piece as a commentary to Habashi’s article (this issue) on the national identity of Palestinian children. Habashi reminds us here that national identities are not static and fixed and that children need to be considered as active agents in constructing and reconstructing national and global politics. I take her long-standing commitment to Palestinian children’s narratives of their own geopolitical worlds to consider the geopolitical lives of children in my own home country – Bosnia and Herzegovina.</p> Suncana Laketa Copyright (c) 2019 Suncana Laketa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 149 150 10.11143/fennia.80159 The state of Palestinian youth – commentary to Habashi https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/80098 <p>This reflection is a response to Habashi's article "Palestinian children: a transformation of national identity in the Abbas era." It considers the unique scalar and temporal challenges of researching with Palestinian children in the context of a territorially fractured Palestine.</p> David J. Marshall Copyright (c) 2019 David J. Marshall https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 151 154 10.11143/fennia.80098 No trenches: toward inclusive and hybrid methodologies – commentary to Tulumello https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/79837 <p>My critical reflection on Simone Tulumello’s intervention focuses first on the need to make a clear distinction between methodologies and epistemologies, asking the author to explain his own perspective. A second area of concern is the analogy he draws between structures engineered with concrete and human societies and how this appears to simplify the debate he initiates. In the third part I suggest that the goal should be to transcend the tensions between paradigms through inclusive and hybrid methodologies.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Guntram H. Herb Copyright (c) 2019 Guntram H. Herb https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 155 157 10.11143/fennia.79837 Mapping the 'gray area' – commentary to Tulumello https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/80011 <p>As a response to Simone Tulumello’s essay ‘Generalization, epistemology and concrete: what can social sciences learn from the common sense of engineers’, in this commentary I reflect on some of the issues that I consider key elements in his provocative original text. I mainly pay attention to the question of balancing between ideal-typical simplification and nuance in Tulumello’s argumentation, pointing at the risks involved in a writing strategy that seeks not only to engage and inspire but also persuade and convince.</p> Jouni Häkli Copyright (c) 2019 Jouni Häkli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 158 159 10.11143/fennia.80011 Understanding (un)certainty in human geographic quantitative spatial analysis – commentary to Tulumello https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/80216 <p>This commentary reflects uncertainty in human geographic quantitative spatial analysis within the context of Simone Tulumello’s essay (in this issue). Epistemologically, positivism, logical empiricism and behaviourism must be understood as historical stages in the evolution of quantitative human geography, even though the analytical legacy is clear. A more recognisable quantitative methodological framework, related to post-millennial human geographic studies, seeks sufficient evidence, which supports or refutes a particular line of thought. In general, the consideration of uncertainty and error is deeply tied to the methodological knowledge in quantitative analysis. Regardless of methodology or discipline, however, the risks of reporting over-certainty or clear misconduct are essential ethical questions. Uncertainty is linked also to the limits of conceptualisation and information catchment, but robust information revealing otherwise-hidden patterns is often highly valuable.</p> Ossi Kotavaara Copyright (c) 2019 Ossi Kotavaara https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 160 162 10.11143/fennia.80216 Lectio praecursoria: Theory of control tuning – the processing of control in migration-related place coping https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/79471 <p>In this lectio praecursoria, which I presented as part of my doctoral defence at the University of Helsinki on 26 October 2018, I introduce a new migration-related control theory that I developed in my doctoral research. The theory of control tuning is a middle-range theory that closes the gap between empirical data and formal theory. The theory is mainly based on primary data from South Sudanese migration, which I brought from the descriptive level to the conceptual level by using classic grounded theory methodology. The theory of control tuning explains how various migration actors process control in their everyday life in order to manage and govern feelings, information, actions and people as well as ownership of situations and objects. <em>Control tuning</em> refers to the action of modifying control, and it occurs through particular control-tuning paths. These control-tuning paths consist of control-tuning causes, strategies, outcomes, intervening factors and conditions. Control-tuning paths appear in relation to the behavioural arena of migration. This behavioural arena includes the elements, circumstances, relationships and objects of the physical, social, political, cultural and economic world with which migration actors come into contact and interact. The main activities in the behavioural arena of migration are <em>place coping, knowledge dealing, encountering authority</em> and <em>link keeping</em>. The theory of control tuning demonstrates that control tuning occurs regardless of whether migration is international or internal or forced or voluntary and irrespective of the status of a migrant, or whether the actor is a local resident or an authority, or whether migration actors move or stay put. Moreover, the theory of control tuning demonstrates that control has significance for individuals and groups of migration actors.</p> Saija Niemi Copyright (c) 2019 Saija Niemi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 163 167 10.11143/fennia.79471 R.I.P. Resilience https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/80093 <p>Resilience was set to rest on 30 June 2016 in Trondheim, Norway. After a two-year quest for meaning, the concept now lies with its neoliberal supporters. Resilience and I first crossed paths at the beginning of my PhD journey in Geography. I was driven by curiosity and an eagerness to put resilience to use: after all, who doesn’t want to be resilient? As the months passed by, I discovered the many different meanings the concept was associated with. Indeed, resilience refused to be put in a box. Yet, the concept contained some questions that I set out to try to answer in the “real” world. However, curiosity soon developed into frustration – resilience revealed a rootlessness that was disturbing. Was it a means to measure? A means to conceptualize why some people make it and some do not? Or, was it in fact, just a means to get funding? Certainly, it was not a means to explain. Therefore, resilience will for me forever be remembered as an approach to enter and structure an interview guide, but now we must bid one another farewell. Your legacy will continue to live on in the neoliberal agenda.</p> Silje Aurora Andresen Copyright (c) 2019 Silje Aurora Andresen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 197 1 168 170 10.11143/fennia.80093