Fennia - International Journal of Geography https://fennia.journal.fi/ <p align="left">FENNIA is a non-profit peer-review journal published by the Geographical Society of Finland since 1889. It is an international scientific publication dedicated to all fields of geography with attentiveness to northern dimensions. In 2010, FENNIA became an open access electronic journal with two yearly issues. It is devoted to a fast publication process, including the open access publication of forthcoming papers before inclusion in an issue. The journal has no submission or article processing charges, and authors ratain all rights to their work throughout the publication process and after publication. We also offer the opportunity to publish short, popularized texts based on research articles through the <a href="https://www.versuslehti.fi/english/">Versus</a> platform that aims to make research more visible, dialogical and effective in societies.</p> <p align="left">FENNIA publishes papers of high scholarly merit in three categories: Research Papers, Reviews and Essays, and Reflections.&nbsp;Research Papers are original full-length articles that make a significant contribution to geographic and related research. Reviews and Essays introduce empirical, theoretical or methodological insights from ongoing research, including literature reviews and lectures. Reflections section includes commentaries, debates, discussion pieces, interventions and other argumentative short texts related to contemporary issues. With these three publication formats, FENNIA seeks to take forward geographical research and discussion in a critical and responsible spirit. In addition to individual contributions, the journal welcomes proposals for special issues and sections.</p> <p align="left">The fully open access FENNIA publications are under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>). The journal is member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (<a href="http://publicationethics.org/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">COPE</a>) and follows the peer review standards set by the Federation of Finnish Learned Societies (<a href="http://www.tsv.fi/en/services/label-for-peer-reviewed-scholarly-publications" target="_blank" rel="noopener">TSV</a><a href="http://ip-science.thomsonreuters.com/cgi-bin/jrnlst/jlresults.cgi?PC=MASTER&amp;Word=fennia" target="_self">)</a>. It is indexed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (<a href="https://doaj.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>) and&nbsp;the Thomson Reuters Emerging Sources Citation Index (<a href="http://ip-science.thomsonreuters.com/cgi-bin/jrnlst/jlresults.cgi?PC=MASTER&amp;Word=fennia" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ESCI</a>), and is part of the <a href="http://freejournals.org/">Free Journal Network</a>. The main language of the journal is English.</p> Geographical Society of Finland en-US Fennia - International Journal of Geography 1798-5617 <p>Authors who publish with FENNIA agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.&nbsp;The license of the published metadata is Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).&nbsp;&nbsp;</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a doctoral dissertation or book compilation), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> Collective editorial on the neoliberal university https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/88578 <p>This collective editorial on the neoliberal university follows eight days of strike action at sixty UK universities called by the University and College Union (UCU) in two separate legal disputes, one on pensions and one on pay and working conditions. Anticipating the recent labor strike after previous industrial disputes in 2018 at UK universities, the work included here emanates from two dialogues at the Nordic Geographers Meeting (NGM) in summer 2019, a public meeting called Protest Pub and a conference session on the neoliberal subject and the neoliberal academy. After an opening statement by the editors, this collective endeavor begins with the urgent collaborative action of graduate students and early-career academics and is followed by reflections on life in the neoliberal academy from those involved in the dialogues at the NGM 2019 in Trondheim. Additionally, the editorial introduces the content of the present issue.</p> James Riding Kirsi Pauliina Kallio Pegah Behroozi Lawrence D. Berg Alexander Brackebusch Murray Derksen Jodine Ducs Ida Marie Henriksen Edward H. Huijbens Thomas Sætre Jakobsen Michael Jones Heather Magusin Ariele Parker Adriane Peak Noora Pyyry Hilde Refstie Eli Smeplass Hongyang Tao Ragne Øwre Thorshaug Copyright (c) 2019 James Riding; Kirsi Pauliina Kallio, Lawrence D. Berg, Noora Pyyry, Ragne Øwre Thorshaug http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 197 2 171 182 10.11143/fennia.88578 The long shadows cast by the field: violence, trauma, and the ethnographic researcher https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/84792 <p>As more geographers utilise ethnographic methods to explore pressing contemporary issues such as abandonment, precarity, and resilience, they enter into research environments often defined by social marginality and violence. There are emotional and psychological risks associated with embedded research in such contexts, however these challenges have largely been ignored in existing methodological literatures. A frank debate is needed about the emotional and psychological burden that ethnographic research can exact upon lone researchers and how these burdens interface with researcher identity and positionality. Drawing on a reflexive analysis of the author’s experience of fieldwork in South Africa, this paper highlights the emotional consequences of conducting ethnographic research with marginal groups in dangerous contexts. It specifically examines the ripple effect of exposure to traumatic events that culminated in the author’s diagnosis with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In so doing, the paper draws attention to the acute emotional and psychological consequences of ethnographic research, while also challenging prevalent professional attitudes within the neoliberal university that promote the downplaying or silencing of such repercussions. The paper concludes with a series of suggestions for how (early career) researchers, our discipline, and institutions might better promote and realise an ethic of collective care for field researchers.</p> Stephen Taylor Copyright (c) 2019 Stephen Taylor http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-09 2019-12-09 197 2 183 199 10.11143/fennia.84792 Lesbian nightlife in Amsterdam: an explorative study of the shift from ‘queer-only’ to ‘queer-friendly’ spaces https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/83696 <p>This paper explains the decline of lesbian space in Amsterdam through a better understanding of young lesbians' lived experiences of in/exclusion in urban nightlife. The study is situated in Amsterdam, a city internationally known as a queer capital. In-depth interviews were conducted with young lesbian clubbers, owners of local lesbian bars, and organizers of lesbian-oriented parties. The results show that straight and queer spaces should be understood as fluid since the clientele has become a queer and non-queer blend after a shift towards an ‘inclusive’ and open-minded vibe. That shift goes hand in hand with the commodification of queer venues, which puts pressure on the few women-only spaces left. As the interviews revealed, a commodified open-minded, ‘inclusive’ venue or party is not necessarily a safe space for lesbian clubbers. The interviews also foregrounded the diversity among lesbian clubbers, which partially explains the widening range of venues and party concepts with a concomitant decline in visibility. This paper suggests some ways to create safe lesbian nightlife space, in light of the experiences of interviewed clubbers and information gathered from entrepreneurs within the scene.</p> Marieke Ekenhorst Irina van Aalst Copyright (c) 2019 Marieke Ekenhorst, Irina van Aalst http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 197 2 200 214 10.11143/fennia.83696 Serving whom? Immigrant entrepreneurs in a new local context https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/82821 <p>In Helsinki, the current number of immigrants is quickly rising. Ethnic retail has emerged as a new, but visible, part of the city landscape. Compared to other European countries, becoming an entrepreneur is typically not very popular in Finland. Therefore, in this paper, we seek to comprehend this phenomenon and more specifically discover: what motivates immigrants to become entrepreneurs; what is the impact of their background and culture on the phenomenon; and finally, is the help provided by the city useful for them? Based on interviews and observations, we conclude that immigrant entrepreneurship facilitates in fluid ways the maintenance of cultural practices, while simultaneously enhancing meaningful encounters between immigrants and mainstream society. In our sample, we identify three types of entrepreneurs: growth-oriented, investors and status builders, as well as freedom and stability seekers. Although the groups are neither mutually exclusive nor collectively exhaustive, they display differences in certain aspects, which include their ways of entering into entrepreneurship, how their business is run, who their main clientele is, as well as in the future prospects for their businesses. We further infer that immigrant entrepreneurs, via their practices, also participate in making immigrant needs visible to politicians and policy-makers, thus also adding a layer to the local context within which they operate. However, we surmise that more effort is needed in addressing the freedom and stability seeker entrepreneurs if the aim of the city is to anchor immigrant retail in the city.</p> Johanna Lilius Hossam Hewidy Copyright (c) 2019 Johanna Lilius, Hossam Hewidy http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 197 2 215 231 10.11143/fennia.82821 Temporal injustice and asylum reception centres in Norway: towards a critical geographies of architecture in the institution https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/84758 <p>A temporal injustice is inherently built into the asylum-seeking system. Asylum seekers lack control over their biographical and their everyday time. In Norway, most asylum seekers live in reception centres while their applications are processed. This article develops a conceptual framework for understanding the asylum centre by drawing on geographical literature on architecture and contributions from migration studies on temporality. It analyses the ways in which the reception centre becomes a focal point in the asylum seekers’ lives and how people’s lived experiences, the asylum institution and the materiality of the buildings housing the centres come together in the particular temporalities produced by the asylum-seeking process. People’s agentic capacities within institutional and material structures are conceptualised as ‘orientations’. The paper analyses the lived experience of residents in three different reception centres in Norway. The temporal frames operating in the reception centres are expressions of power that produce blurred, uncertain and clashing temporalities. In this context, the reception centre operates as a material disorientation device where institutional durability, temporary dwelling and decaying as well as sub-standard materialities are significant aspects of the asylum seekers’ experience. However, some residents are able to re-orient their perspective and find ways of coping with the uncertainty and waiting. These strategies are identified as ‘reorientations’ to show how the governance and the inhabitation in the centres come together and how people engage with the reception centre through stubborn everyday strategies of inhabiting the centre. In conclusion, the paper reflects on the limited possibility that improving the material conditions may have for a better experience of the asylum-seeking process: it is the interaction between the material, the institution and the lived experience that creates the temporal injustice.</p> Ragne Øwre Thorshaug Cathrine Brun Copyright (c) 2019 Ragne Øwre Thorshaug, Cathrine Brun http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 197 2 232 248 10.11143/fennia.84758 GIS and land cover-based assessment of ecosystem services in the North Karelia Biosphere Reserve, Finland https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/80331 <p>Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, ecosystems and their services are key principles behind the establishment of “Biosphere Reserves”. Mapping of ecosystem services is one of the activities that is expected to increase the knowledge of sustainable land use planning. The Biosphere Reserves, established by the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme, aims to find the balance between nature conservation, use of natural resources, recreation and other culture-related activities. For this purpose, the ecosystem services approach is a promising tool for examining the relationships between people and nature in practice. This study applies the ecosystem services approach and examines which ecosystem services are perceived to be relevant in the North Karelia Biosphere Reserve in Eastern Finland. The results of a <em>matrix method</em>, with expert-based approach, showed that particularly old-growth forests and undrained open and forested mires have a broader potential to provide different ecosystem services. Water and urban areas are considered important for cultural services. However, these areas cover only a relatively small area altogether. The results of the ecosystem services assessment were compared to areas of high biodiversity, as defined by local biodiversity experts. The areas with high capacity for ecosystem services provision (from now on “high ecosystem services areas”) were found in areas with high biodiversity. In most cases, these areas are already under protection. The results also showed that ambiguity is an issue with the use of the ecosystem services concept in both stakeholder and expert evaluations.</p> Laura Poikolainen Guilherme Pinto Petteri Vihervaara Benjamin Burkhard Franzeska Wolff Reima Hyytiäinen Timo Kumpula Copyright (c) 2019 Laura Poikolainen, Guilherme Pinto, Petteri Vihervaara, Benjamin Burkhard, Franzeska Wolff, Reima Hyytiäinen, Timo Kumpula http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-11-15 2019-11-15 197 2 249 267 10.11143/fennia.80331 From pragmatism to meritocracy? Views on in-house family ties on the Swedish labour market https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/73001 <p>In-house family ties within workplaces are a non-negligible phenomenon on the labour market. Drawing on organizational and geographical perspectives and based on thematic analysis of 40 interviews with human resource managers, we analyse how family ties are viewed and managed in organizations on the Swedish labour market. Based on the empirical analysis, we suggest that there are two different logics of human resource management concerning in-house family ties: a traditional, pragmatic and informal logic which expresses an accepting view; and a modern, meritocratic and formal logic associated with a disapproving view. Moreover, the informal logic seems to be increasingly challenged by formalization of human resource processes in both urban and rural settings. However, the analysis indicates that in smaller labour markets this shift is somewhat restrained by the limited supply of labour and socially tight knit local communities. Also, it seems that the change often meets resistance from supporters of the informal logic, and there is dissonance across different professional groups across and within organizations.</p> Kerstin Westin Katarina Haugen Copyright (c) 2019 Kerstin Westin, Katarina Haugen http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-11-15 2019-11-15 197 2 268 279 10.11143/fennia.73001 To crash on the bus (or sit on needles and pins)? – buses and subways in teenage everyday geographies https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/83665 <p>When young people travel, they are often very dependent on public transport or parents. This study uses interviews with 16–19 years old teenagers in Stockholm to investigate their everyday experiences of public transit. The paper explores the experiences of buses and subways, here conceptualized as <em>mobile places</em>, to understand how they shape teenagers’ daily life. Understanding teenagers’ experiences of public transportation is part of understanding their everyday life, struggles, and possibilities to be mobile and participate in society. It is also a step towards ensuring that they find public transportation inclusive, safe, and worth traveling with today and in the future. Conceptually, the analysis focuses on how these mobile places are experienced as providing <em>weights</em> or <em>reliefs</em> to the everyday and if, how and when they may be <em>places of interaction</em> or <em>retreat</em>, addressing two needs in teenagers’ personal being and development. The study shows how various experiences of traveling with buses and subways shape how the teenagers feel, and how they make strategic choices in relation to this. A quite manifold, varying, and complex picture of public transportation arises, with stories of wellbeing, comfort, discomfort, and exclusion, and with sharp differences between girls and boys, and between buses and subways. These nuances are essential in planning and evaluation of transport systems in regard to how, when, where, or for whom public transport can be a part of social sustainability, as public policies often assume.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> Maja Lagerqvist Copyright (c) 2019 Maja Lagerqvist http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 197 2 280 294 10.11143/fennia.83665 Imagining future worlds alongside young climate activists: a new framework for research https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/85151 <p>Young people’s climate activism must stand as one of the most remarkable and important mass movements of our age. At levels of organization from the local to the global, young climate activists are coming together in massive mobilizations, and particularly school strikes, under the names of Fridays For Future, #FridaysForFuture, Youth for Climate, Youth Strike for (or 4) Climate and School Strike for (or 4) Climate. This article responds to the most extensive study of young people’s climate action published to date, entitled ‘Protest for a Future: Composition, Mobilization and Motives of the Participants in Fridays For Future Climate Protests on 15 March, 2019 in 13 European Cities’. In this significant and provocative article, an analysis is provided of the potential – and the need – for empirical work at local and international levels concerning youth climate activism that recognizes the often complex, liminal nature of young political agency and the diverse, intersecting motives that lead young people to demonstrate for action on climate change. Through this analysis, this article contributes to theoretical innovation to get beyond rigid, top-down understandings of young people’s political engagement, and instead build theory from young people’s visions of social, economic and political change in response to climate emergency.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> Benjamin Bowman Copyright (c) 2019 Benjamin Bowman http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-05 2019-12-05 197 2 295 305 10.11143/fennia.85151