Fennia - International Journal of Geography https://fennia.journal.fi/ <p align="left">FENNIA is a non-profit peer-review journal published by the Geographical Society of Finland since 1889. It is an international scientific publication dedicated to all fields of geography with attentiveness to northern dimensions. In 2010, FENNIA became an open access electronic journal with two yearly issues. It is devoted to a fast publication process, including the open access publication of forthcoming papers before inclusion in an issue. The journal has no submission or article processing charges, and authors ratain all rights to their work throughout the publication process and after publication. We also offer the opportunity to publish short, popularized texts based on research articles through the <a href="https://www.versuslehti.fi/english/">Versus</a> platform that aims to make research more visible, dialogical and effective in societies.</p> <p align="left">FENNIA publishes papers of high scholarly merit in three categories: research papers, reviews and essays, and reflections.&nbsp;Research papers are original full-length articles that make a significant contribution to geographic and related research. Reviews and essays introduce empirical, theoretical or methodological insights from ongoing research, including literature reviews and lectures. Reflections section includes commentaries, debates, discussion pieces, interventions and other argumentative short texts related to contemporary issues. With these three publication formats, FENNIA seeks to take forward geographical research and discussion in a critical and responsible spirit. In addition to individual contributions, the journal welcomes proposals for special issues and sections.</p> <p align="left">The fully open access FENNIA publications are under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>). The journal is member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (<a href="http://publicationethics.org/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">COPE</a>) and follows the peer review standards set by the Federation of Finnish Learned Societies (<a href="http://www.tsv.fi/en/services/label-for-peer-reviewed-scholarly-publications" target="_blank" rel="noopener">TSV</a><a href="http://ip-science.thomsonreuters.com/cgi-bin/jrnlst/jlresults.cgi?PC=MASTER&amp;Word=fennia" target="_self">)</a>. It is indexed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (<a href="https://doaj.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>) and&nbsp;the Thomson Reuters Emerging Sources Citation Index (<a href="http://ip-science.thomsonreuters.com/cgi-bin/jrnlst/jlresults.cgi?PC=MASTER&amp;Word=fennia" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ESCI</a>), and is part of the <a href="http://freejournals.org/">Free Journal Network</a>. The main language of the journal is English.</p> Geographical Society of Finland en-US Fennia - International Journal of Geography 1798-5617 <p>Authors who publish with FENNIA agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.&nbsp;The license of the published metadata is Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).&nbsp;&nbsp;</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a doctoral dissertation or book compilation), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> ’Alternative’ journal publishing and the economy of academic prestige https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/70469 <p>N/A</p> Kirsi Pauliina Kallio Jonathan Metzger ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-29 2018-05-29 196 1 1 3 10.11143/fennia.70469 Dialogical peer-review and non-profit open-access journal publishing: welcome to Fennia https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/70470 <p>N/A</p> Kirsi Pauliina Kallio James Riding ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-29 2018-05-29 196 1 4 8 10.11143/fennia.70470 Mapping the distributive environmental justice of urban waters https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/64137 <p>In this paper, we identify patterns of distributive environmental justice in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) in terms of spatial proximity of urban waters, as a potential provider of a diverse set of environmental goods and well-being. Our focus is on the question how equally these benefits are distributed in HMA? To answer this we apply a GIS-based clustering analysis with spatial statistics to map the good and deprived access of different socio-economic and demographic groups to urban blue. We use income, education, language and age as factors to delineate residential areas and found not only differences in how various population groups are located in the four different municipalities of the HMA, but also differences in group distances to the nearest water areas. Results show that high income and high educational background, Swedish language and high age are factors more frequently related to living closer to water areas. At the same time, children, foreigners, and people having lower economic status tend to live further away from urban blue. This is important knowledge to be integrated into urban planning. The recognition of lacking opportunities suggests more consideration towards these aforementioned population groups to reduce inequality and to ensure just distribution of accessible and usable urban nature in the HMA.</p> Arto Viinikka Riikka Paloniemi Timo Assmuth ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-01-15 2018-01-15 196 1 9 23 10.11143/fennia.64137 Performing “home” in the sharing economies of tourism: the Airbnb experience in Sofia, Bulgaria https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/66259 <p>This article explores how “home” is performed in the emerging sharing economies of tourism, drawing on the example of <em>Airbnb</em> in Sofia, Bulgaria. Based on an (auto)ethnographic approach, this article analyses the sometimes contested ways in which both hosts and guests engage in the everyday embodied practices of home-making. In doing so, it challenges<em> Airbnb</em>’s essentialized idea of home as a site of belonging, “authenticity” or “localness”. It also shows how the political and historical specificities, as well as the materialities of people’s homes significantly shape the ways in which ordinary practices of homemaking play out and consequently affect feelings of (un)homeliness as part of the <em>Airbnb</em> experience. By using performance theory as an analytical framework, this article seeks to contribute to a critical understanding of the contemporary geographies of home in relation to the global sharing economies of tourism, one that is attuned to openness, interrelatedness, and a constant mode of <em>becoming</em>.</p> Maartje Roelofsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-12 2018-03-12 196 1 24 42 10.11143/fennia.66259 Degrowth in city planning https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/65443 <p>This paper summarises the key arguments of degrowth thinking and examines their validity in a city planning setting. The paper argues that much of the reorientation work that is necessary to meet the goals of international climate change conventions needs to be carried out locally, in urban and regional settings, and this creates pressure to renew land-use planning practices. It also argues that in light of the latest carbon footprint studies the currently popular linking of urban planning motives with the doctrine of ‘compactness policy’ – which aims at urban core densification and accumulation of growth options – needs to be re-evaluated. The empirical part of the paper focuses on the inner city planning of Joensuu, a city in Eastern Finland with 75,000 inhabitants which has increasingly been criticised by some residents, civil servants and civic action groups for one-sided promotion of the central city. This is, according to critics, taking place at the cost of the surrounding countryside and peri-urban nodes. The paper illustrates how the ‘tactics of growth’ become manifest in the official local planning procedure and to what degree the planning critique, explicitly or implicitly, leans on degrowth concerns. The gathering of the empirical material progressed as part of my involvement in the local degrowth movement, Kohtuusliike, which actively participated in the preparation of the Central Joensuu General Plan 2012.</p> Ari Aukusti Lehtinen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-22 2018-05-22 196 1 43 57 10.11143/fennia.65443 Deregulated free-for-all planning, new settlements and the spectre of abandoned building sites in Scotland’s crisis-hit oil economy https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/65626 <p>The creation of new settlements as a response to the accommodation of household growth was regarded by the Scottish Government from the 1980s to around 2008 as an option of the last resort. This position changed due to significant legislative and policy changes to the Scottish planning system which diluted restrictions on greenfield housing development and removed the right for public hearings into development plan objections in the belief that these procedures hindered economic growth. This paper outlines the evolution of planning policy for new settlements from the 1990s to the present and examines its impact upon proposals for such projects in north-east Scotland. It contends that the removal of the right to hearings into major development proposals is symptomatic of both the post-politics condition which seeks to promote neoliberal values by squeezing out dissenting voices and green light administrative law theory which vests important decisions over citizens’ rights in the hands of unaccountable state bureaucrats. Finally it considers the implications of the current North Sea oil crisis for the development of three new settlements in the area.</p> William Walton ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-22 2018-05-22 196 1 58 76 10.11143/fennia.65626 Dissonance: scientific paradigms underpinning the study of sound in geography https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/69068 <p>The objective of this article is to approach the different conceptions of sound – and its relations to the underlying scientific paradigms – that emerged throughout the history of geography. There has been a growing interest among geographers in understanding the spatialities of sound, and geographies of sound have become an emerging subfield of the discipline. For this reason, it is the right time to address how the discipline has approached sound throughout its history. Several theoretical perspectives influenced geography in the twentieth century, changing its methodologies and how its subjects were conceived. Sound, like other subjects, has been conceived very differently by geographers of competing paradigms. Concepts such as noise, soundscape, or sound as affect, among others, have dominated geographies of sound at specific periods. Due to the marginality of the subject in the discipline, assessments of these conceptual shifts are rare. I tackle this issue in this article as I provide a first attempt of writing a history of sound in geography. The article reviews debates regarding the name of the subfield, and the conceptions of sound in the successive and competing scientific paradigms in geography.</p> Daniel Paiva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-22 2018-05-22 196 1 77 87 10.11143/fennia.69068 The suppression of welcome https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/70040 <p>One way to interpret the organisation of refugee welcome in Europe is by thinking about the tension between the official response and the grassroots response to the events. This tension has evolved in different ways in different countries, but in general it is possible to distinguish between a bureaucratic tendency to abstract welcome into a specific problem or policy domain, and a different, often opposite, tendency to welcome in spontaneous, solidaristic and autonomous ways. Starting from the premise that welcome necessarily entails more than simply permitting entry and is inherently emotional and relational, this lecture explores a series of questions. How can genuine, spontaneous welcome be preserved under the pressure of statist and nationalistic logics and demands? How can we hold onto welcome as something meaningful when it seems to be under attack from not only right-wing nationalists and factions that draw spurious connections between refugees and security threats, but also the very architecture of bureaucracy? What relationship does welcome share with legalistic logics and practices? To what extent can welcomers and welcoming initiatives be supported by international cooperation, global organisational and communication systems, and resource-gathering mechanisms? And what role can research play in improving our understanding of welcome? By raising these questions the lecture aims to initiate a discussion about the nature, practicalities and possible futures of welcome in geography and the social sciences more broadly.</p> Nick Gill ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-27 2018-05-27 196 1 88 98 10.11143/fennia.70040 The timely return of the repressed – commentary to Walton https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/69822 <p>This reflection discusses my response to William Walton's research paper in this issue of the journal. In it I explore how a timely invitation to take part in the open review process prompted thoughts about my ongoing involvement in the politics of planning in Scotland. Drawing on experience of campaigning for a fair and inclusive planning system, I briefly reflect on why the post-political has proven such an attractive theoretical lens for recent attempts to understand urban planning under neoliberalism. Suggesting that it seems to capture something important about ongoing attempts to reshape planning ideas and practices in Scotland, I go on to consider how Walton’s paper brings to light important concerns about the loss of democratic accountability. Overall, I try to explore how the repression of energies required to sustain a post-political settlement may nonetheless provide a resource for acting in and against the dominance of market rationalities.</p> Andy Inch ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-22 2018-05-22 196 1 99 102 10.11143/fennia.69822 Post-politics of (Scottish) planning: gatekeepers, gatecheck and gatecrashers? – commentary to Walton https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/69905 <p>Reflecting upon William Walton’s work in this issue of Fennia, this commentary elaborates on the ideas of post-politics evoked by Walton’s careful examination of Scottish planning. Applying viewpoints of depoliticization and post-politics may not provide pragmatic guidance for planning practice, yet it may sensitize to and enable revelations of situational, processual and structural workings of power. With new orchestrations of planning narrowing the spaces for local resistance politicisations, depoliticisation may be taken to mean less politics. However, the complicit politicisations brought about by applying governmental technologies may also be seen as a different kind of statecraft, resulting in all too visible politics of planning presented as technicalities. This calls for local action. ‘Gatecrashing’ the planning system for a disruptive re-introduction of more inclusive and empowering planning practices could mean attaining ‘agonistic spaces’ that could enable dialectical approaches under uneven power relations.</p> Vesa Kanninen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-22 2018-05-22 196 1 103 107 10.11143/fennia.69905 Who hosts a politics of welcome? – commentary to Gill https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/70294 <p>This review is written as a letter, and addressed to my colleague Nick Gill. It is an effort to continue conversations about the politics of welcome as they relate to practices of asylum and our academic modes of inquiry into this field of study. In particular, this letter reflects upon Gill’s piece, The Suppression of Welcome’, which is based on his keynote lecture at the Finnish Geography Days 2017 in Turku.</p> Jen Bagelman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-22 2018-05-22 196 1 108 110 10.11143/fennia.70294 From welcome to well ... come: the mobilities, temporalities and geopolitics of contemporary hospitality – commentary to Gill https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/70403 <p>In this reflection, I take Nick Gill’s contribution to this issue on the politics of hospitality and welcome as a point of departure to address three specific concerns, framed by the context of contemporary global mobility. First, I argue that various aspects of the recent so-called European migration crisis enable us to further question some of the long-fixed categories through which mobile actors are often classified. Second, I speak to the critical nature of temporality as a governing factor not just in how states manage mobile peoples, but in how people imagine, understand and experience individual and group processes of welcome. Finally, I suggest that just as geopolitical discourse plays a clear role in how migration is understood and experienced, so too are geopolitics deeply embedded in the encounters, practices and regimes of hospitality across tourism.</p> Roger Norum ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-29 2018-05-29 196 1 111 117 10.11143/fennia.70403 Reflections on the variations and spatialities of (un)welcome – commentary to Gill https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/70290 <p>In this reflection, we seek to develop some of Professor Gill’s inspiring ideas on the notion of (un)welcome further. We do this, in particular, by problematizing his largely dualistic conception of the emotionally-invested, inter-personal forms of welcome contra a bureaucratic tendency to abstract welcome, to hollow it out emotionally. We argue that if applied too rigidly, this dichotomy can be unwieldy for making sense of the actual socio-spatial and emotional dynamics of (un)welcome. To elaborate this criticism, we expand on the notion of welcome from three interrelated perspectives. First, we argue that besides the opposite poles of people who welcome refugees, and forces that attempt to exclude them, great many actors convey more ambiguous and contextually varying attitudes to (un)welcoming immigrants. In the light of Lefebvre’s conceptual triad of social space, we next point out that Gill’s conceptualization pays inadequate heed to the practiced and societally recompensing aspects of everyday spatiality and welcoming. Finally, we take a cue from Gill’s suggestion to analyze welcome from the emotional geographies perspective, and reflect on exclusionary and inclusionary socio-spatial processes related to refugees’ emotions (lived space) and coping tactics (practiced space).</p> Jani Vuolteenaho Eveliina Lyytinen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-28 2018-05-28 196 1 118 123 10.11143/fennia.70290 Welcoming the masses, entitling the stranger – commentary to Gill https://fennia.journal.fi/article/view/70227 <p>Identity politics create distinctions, narratives and shared conceptions, and where distinctions can be made, differences arise. Contemporary states, organisations, companies and communities have procedures to level out these social boundaries, but the process of hospitality and welcome is at times more problematic than exclusion. The key question concerns the universality of welcome. If our welcome is extended to the masses, is the mass itself defined and delimited and, second, how does a general welcome condition everyday encounters with the (entitled) stranger. In this reflection, we concentrate on the concept of welcome on two different levels. The mass and interpersonal encounters and argue that whether refugees, migrants or tourists the spatiality of the welcome needs to be considered from both individual and collective viewpoints.</p> Vilhelmiina Vainikka Joni Vainikka ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-28 2018-05-28 196 1 124 130 10.11143/fennia.70227