Fennia - International Journal of Geography 2021-06-24T20:04:03+03:00 Kirsi Pauliina Kallio Open Journal Systems <p align="left">Fennia is a non-profit peer-review journal published by the Geographical Society of Finland since 1889. It is an international scientific publication dedicated to all fields of geography with attentiveness to northern dimensions. In 2010, Fennia became an open access electronic journal with two yearly issues. It is devoted to a fast publication process, including the open access publication of forthcoming papers before inclusion in an issue. The journal has no submission or article processing charges, and authors retain all rights to their work throughout the publication process and after publication. We appreciate that authors clearly bring up that the text has been originally published in Fennia. We also offer the opportunity to publish short, popularized texts based on research articles through the <a href="">Versus</a> platform that aims to make research more visible, dialogical and effective in societies.</p> <p align="left">Fennia publishes papers of high scholarly merit in three categories: Research Papers, Reviews and Essays, and Reflections. Research Papers are original full-length articles that make a significant contribution to geographic and related research. Reviews and Essays introduce empirical, theoretical or methodological insights from ongoing research, including literature reviews and lectures. Reflections section includes commentaries, debates, discussion pieces, interventions and other argumentative short texts related to contemporary issues. With these three publication formats, Fennia seeks to take forward geographical research and discussion in a critical and responsible spirit. In addition to individual contributions, the journal welcomes proposals for special issues and sections.</p> <p align="left">The fully open access Fennia publications are under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY 4.0</a>). The journal is member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">COPE</a>) and follows the peer review standards set by the Federation of Finnish Learned Societies (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">TSV</a><a href=";Word=fennia" target="_self">)</a>. It is indexed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>) and the Thomson Reuters Emerging Sources Citation Index (<a href=";Word=fennia" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ESCI</a>), and is part of the <a href="">Free Journal Network</a>. The main language of the journal is English.</p> From cyberspace to cyberspatialities? 2021-04-15T21:03:51+03:00 Daniela Ferreira Mário Vale <p>This paper is a short reflection on the evolution of the meaning of the term cyberspace for geographers. We argue that the concept of cyberspace has become a rhizomatic one as spatial thinkers have unveiled its complex inner and outer networkings. While cyberspace was initially understood as a new open space ripe for exploration, its intricate connections with real space through the technological infrastructures that make cyberspace possible have led geographers to consider the multiple points of access and types of cyberspace. More recently, there has been renewed attention to the inner geographies of cyberspace and its cyberdivides have been exposed. We briefly retrace this evolution to argue that the way forward is to shift from an idea of cyberspace as a predefined space to a notion of cyberspatialities as ongoing spatial digital formations.</p> 2021-06-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Daniela Ferreira, Mário Vale Rights in education: outlines for a decolonial, childist reimagination of the future – commentary to Ansell and colleagues 2021-05-12T21:00:46+03:00 Tatek Abebe Tanu Biswas <p>In this piece, we reflect upon a recent article published in <em>Fennia</em> by Ansell and colleagues. We identify and discuss aspects of learning that educational research, policies and institutions can consider, addressing the needs and subjectivities of learners and activating a politics around rights <em>in</em> education. Rights <em>in</em> education foreground the intrinsic value of learning,<br />inviting us to realign the purpose of education with the overall purpose of life on this planet. It pursues a ‘bottom-up’ strategy for rethinking education as community formation to incorporate complex sources of knowledge and modes of knowing and becoming for children. In order to think about rights <em>in</em> education, we uphold an analytical distinction between schooling and education. The distinction enables us to raise some questions, reflect on them and suggest preliminary ideas for decolonial, childist strategies to envisage education, highlighting how education and the ‘future’ are<br />intimately woven and exploring what they mean for each other and for childhood. We do so particularly by critiquing ‘western schooling’ as a mode of learning which is a conspirator of capitalism deeply rooted in philosophical racism and contributing to a global epistemological loss. Finally, we outline four strategies of moving forward with a decolonial,<br />childist lens of reimagining education as community formation and welcome further discussions on rights <em>in</em> education.</p> 2021-06-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tatek Abebe, Tanu Biswas Discourse in a modern Arctic: can we supplant sovereignty? – commentary to Pawliw, Berthold and Lasserre 2021-04-29T16:48:01+03:00 Alexandra Carleton <p>In this reflection I contemplate on the nature of claiming sovereignty over the Arctic through the political discourse, as used in the Harper administration. I question the mobilization of discourses to substantiate claims and lasting jurisdiction over the Arctic as the true nature of reconstructing narratives. In particular, whether the truer questions are how and why we seek sovereignty over areas of wilderness and why discourse is needed at all to legitimise the goodness of such claiming.</p> 2021-06-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Alexandra Carleton Zines beyond a means: crafting new research process - commentary to Valli 2021-06-04T20:22:14+03:00 Jennifer Bagelman <p>In this commentary I engage with Chiara Valli's creative zine-making in Bushwick, NYC. In keeping with the spirit of zines, this piece offers a series of (not always connected!) reactions, questions, feelings which address the key question raised by Chiara: how can research become more inclusive? Chiara provides a wonderful reflection in her commentary and I conclude by engaging on the questions of consent that she got me thinking about.</p> <p> </p> 2021-06-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jennifer Bagelman Communicating back: reflections on IBZM as participatory dissemination – commentary on Valli 2021-06-04T20:28:45+03:00 Sofia Cele <p>dissemination as explored by Valli in this issue of <em>Fennia</em>. It discusses three main aspects of the approach. The first aspect relates to IBZM as being dissemination of result or an additional research method. The second focuses on the entanglements between representation and the potential tensions and conflicts that may arise when the workshop participants read interview transcripts from other members of the community. The third aspect focuses on interpretation and how to deal with the thin line between representation of research participants’ understandings of interview transcripts and the researcher’s interpretation and analysis of these.</p> 2021-06-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sofia Cele An ‘inconvenient truth’? The problem of recognition of the political message – commentary to Huttunen and Albrecht 2021-05-17T21:38:07+03:00 Georgios Kyroglou <div id="i4c-draggable-container" style="position: fixed; z-index: 1499; width: 0px; height: 0px;"> <div class="resolved" style="all: initial;" data-reactroot=""> </div> </div> <p>This commentary reflects on Huttunen and Albrecht’s exploration of the representations of young people’s environmental citizenship within the framing of the Fridays for Future (FFF) movement in the Finnish news media and on Twitter. In particular, it problematises the issue of the recognition of young people’s agency by their adult contemporaries, at a watershed moment for global environmental activism. It argues that although young people actively bring the climate change in the forefront of political discussion aiming to shape how environmental responsibility is being understood, the success of the movement will largely depend on the acknowledgement of their political message by its intended recipients; namely their adult contemporaries and politicians.</p> <div id="i4c-dialogs-container"> </div> <div id="i4c-dialogs-container"> </div> 2021-06-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Georgios Kyroglou The framing of environmental citizenship and youth participation in the Fridays for Future Movement in Finland – commentary to Huttunen and Albrecht 2021-05-18T11:42:43+03:00 Arita Holmberg <p>This is a commentary to the article “The framing of environmental citizenship and youth participation in the Fridays for Future Movement in Finland” by Janette Huttunen and Eerika Albrecht. In the piece I reflect on the analysis and results of this interesting research, focusing in particular on adult’s depoliticization of children's protest and the potential collective social and political impact of the Fridays for Future movement for youth.</p> 2021-06-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Arita Holmberg Changing thoughts, changing future – commentary to Huttunen and Albrecht 2021-06-09T13:17:02+03:00 Lena von Zabern Christopher David Tulloch <p>In response to Huttunen and Albrecht’s article in this issue of <em>Fennia</em> we want to focus our commentary on the two key-findings regarding the media representation of environmental citizenship in the Finnish Fridays for Future (FFF) movement: individualised lifestyle choices and a dominant adult voice. This commentary dovetails into the authors’ critical reflection on the insufficiency of individual action alone in addressing environmental issues and the potential risks of a dominant adult voice for youth agency. By doing so, we will also touch on broader ideas of change within the FFF and climate change framing and aspects of (intergenerational) climate justice.</p> 2021-06-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Lena von Zabern, Christopher D. Tulloch Reinvigorating a political ecology of the global agri-food system 2021-03-18T09:19:39+02:00 Sören Köpke <p>This contribution is a critical review of research on the global agri-food system directly or indirectly identified as political ecology (PE). It shows how food, famine and agricultural production were important topics to early proponents of PE, especially with regards to a critique of neo-Malthusian thought. It then traces further developments in the field and highlights the productive tension between materialist and poststructuralist streams, as well as the influence of actor-network theory. Further on, the paper discusses three neighbouring theories and frameworks with a potential to stimulate current political ecologies of food and agriculture, namely critical agrarian studies, food regime theory and world-ecology. Finally, seven clusters of potential research topics for a political ecology of the global agri-food system are identified. In conclusion, the relevance of PE as a theoretical lens is reiterated and the need for fruitful application of political ecology and related approaches is expressed.</p> 2021-06-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sören Köpke Smart cities and innovative governance systems: a reflection on urban living labs and action research 2021-03-21T22:44:47+02:00 Diana Soeiro <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Urban Living Labs (ULL) are sites that allow different urban actors to design, test and learn from socio-technical innovations. In this article, I investigate the epistemological roots of ULL, claiming that this new instrument in the realm of urban planning strongly relies on action research, a methodology designed in the 1940s. I explore to what extent ULL and action research are different, identifying past obstacles of action research to design more successful ULL. This paper establishes that ULL are a key element to implement social innovation and that social innovation should lead technological innovation and the recent smart city model to promote smart sustainable cities. The article was prepared in the aftermath of the project “ROCK” (2017–2020) on cultural heritage as a driver for urban regeneration, where ULL played a central role being highly relevant in the context of urban regeneration policies. Key findings support that ULL can contribute to finding a balance between top-down and bottom-up strategies and its comparative qualitative analysis would improve the methodology. Moreover, public and private cooperation should be encouraged and government should lead and act as a key player in innovation strategies. Lastly, geography can contribute to these new challenges by framing past approaches, projecting the future of cities, and finding ways to make them become a reality.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2021-06-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Diana Soeiro The role of cultural heritage in the geopolitics of the Arctic: the example of Franklin’s lost expedition 2021-01-31T11:06:36+02:00 Kim Pawliw Étienne Berthold Frédéric Lasserre <p>Sir John Franklin’s ships departed from Greenhithe port in Great Britain (1845) with the aim of discovering the Northwest Passage in what is now Canada. During their journey, both ships got stuck in ice near King William Island and eventually sank. Over time, searches were held in order to find both wrecks. More recently, under the Conservative Government of Stephen Harper (2006–2015) there was renewed interest regarding what is now referred to as <em>Franklin’s lost expedition</em>. Searches resumed and narratives were formed regarding the importance of this expedition for Canadian identity. This article is embedded in a sociocultural perspective and will examine the role that cultural heritage can play in the geopolitics of the Arctic while highlighting the process of ‘patrimonialization’ that the <em>Franklin’s lost expedition</em> has undergone during Harper’s term in office. Based on discourse analysis, it brings out the main narratives that surrounded the modern searches of Franklin’s wrecks which are related to history, national historic sites, mystery, diversity, importance of Inuit knowledge and information gathering. This article demonstrates that these narratives were intended to form a new Canadian northern identity and to assert Canada’s sovereignty over the Arctic.</p> 2021-06-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Kim Pawliw, Étienne Berthold, Frédéric Lasserre Participatory dissemination: bridging in-depth interviews, participation, and creative visual methods through Interview-Based Zine-Making (IBZM) 2021-04-22T09:48:12+03:00 Chiara Valli <p>In this article, I make the case for an underexplored research practice – participatory dissemination – and reflectively introduce a new research method, IBZM (Interview-Based Zine-Making), which I developed in my fieldwork research on the gentrifying neighborhood of Bushwick, Brooklyn, in New York City. Participatory dissemination is a practice that engages research participants in the interpretation of preliminary research findings, and through art-based methods, leads to the coproduction of visual outputs and research communication for diversified audiences, especially those beyond solely academic readers. Participatory dissemination has received little attention within academic debates thus far. The paper addresses this gap in the literature by outlining the rationale and potential for incorporating participatory processes within research dissemination, even where so-called traditional (non- or less-participatory) research methods are used. IBZM follows the technique of zine-making (that is, the practice of cutting, rearranging, and creatively pasting printed materials in a new pamphlet), but instead of using media texts and pictures as raw materials, IBZM works with transcribed texts from researcher-conducted interviews. The aim is to let the research participants (zine-makers) engage with the perspectives of the interviewees and find assonances, disagreements, and connections with their own thoughts. The output is a collectively produced zine to be further disseminated. IBZM offers a means of combining traditional detached research methods, such as interviews, with participatory and creative/visual research methods. As such, participatory dissemination can be helpful in bridging literatures and debates on participatory and traditional research methods, providing new avenues for researchers working primarily with the latter to incorporate participatory elements into their research process and outputs.</p> 2021-06-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Chiara Valli The framing of environmental citizenship and youth participation in the Fridays for Future Movement in Finland 2021-05-18T09:09:41+03:00 Janette Huttunen Eerika Albrecht <p>The Fridays for Future (FFF) movement is a major climate movement on a global scale, calling for systemic change and demanding politicians act on their responsibilities. In this paper, we present and analyze original findings from a case study on the FFF movement in Finland, at a watershed moment for young climate activism. We explore the representations of young people’s environmental citizenship within the framings of the FFF movement, using an environ-mental citizenship framework analysis of the Finnish news media and Twitter discussions. We identified three frames within the media debate on the school strikes: the sustainable lifestyle frame, which focuses on the individual aspects of environmental citizenship, the active youth frame, which focuses on justifications of youth participation in politics, and the school attendance frame, which is concerned about the young people’s strike action. Our results explore the many aspects of environmental citizenship that young people express in the FFF movement. We reflect on the dominance of adult voices in the framing of this historic movement of young people for action on climate change. Our analysis contributes to a step change in the study of this important global movement, which is shaping the emergence of young people as active citizens in Finland and around the world. We argue that the FFF movement is shaping young people’s perceptions of active citizenship, and we advocate a youth-centred focus on the collective action and justice demands of young people.</p> 2021-06-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Janette Huttunen, Eerika Albrecht A comprehensive spatial model for historical travel effort - a case study in Finland 2021-05-17T09:52:08+03:00 Timo Rantanen Harri Tolvanen Terhi Honkola Outi Vesakoski <p>Contributing to multidisciplinary studies of human population history, this paper presents an analysis chain to comprehensively model the historical travel environment in Finland, based on a study of spatial patterns of overall accessibility within the country. We created a spatial historical travel environment model over the whole country using high-quality terrain and landscape spatial data, combined with information from historical sources that characterize the landscape in terms of travel effort given the environmental and human-related factors current up until the late 19<sup>th</sup> century. Spatial analyses of historical travel effort based on the travel environment model indicate travel speeds for different parts of the country, ranging from 0.6 to 5.3 km/h. This is nearly a tenfold range, potentially highly significant for studies relying on historical travel effort and contacts between population groups in Finland. The results show that the overall travel effort in southern Finland is significantly smaller than in the north: almost all areas in southern Finland have average travel speeds above 3 km/h, whereas the average travel speeds below 2.5 km/h are typical in the north. A more detailed study using random 100 km transects highlights the variability of the least-cost routes in different landscapes and between different source data combinations in each cost surface. The paper identifies great potential in combining the existing spatial data archives with archaeological, linguistic, and genetic data in a GIS analysis, to study the travel effort and its impact on the observed spatial patterns of languages, genetic traits, and archaeological findings.</p> 2021-06-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Timo Rantanen, Harri Tolvanen, Terhi Honkola, Outi Vesakoski Societal impact through lingual plurality 2021-06-09T17:33:23+03:00 Kirsi Pauliina Kallio Anna Marjaana Heikkinen James Riding <p>Recent tendency towards internationalization of academic publishing has reinforced the dominant role of English language in scholarly debates and discussions. The monolinguistic development has led to several drawbacks: it risks to sustain global inequalities in knowledge production, limits the access of non-native English speakers to international publishing, and disengages place-specific knowledge from national and local contexts, not only in scholarly communities but also among decision-makers and within the civil society. In response, <em>Fennia</em> seeks ways towards multicultural publishing, including lingual plurality. The journal has a long history in multilingual publishing yet, in its present form – following international standards of journal publishing, with modest resources – its content is solely in English. The editorial briefly introduces this linguistic development, since 1889, and presents ideas for further activities. <em>Fennia’s</em> current multilingual strategy emphasizes the popularization of the peer reviewed content in different languages, which is implemented through collaboration with the online popular science forum <em>Versus</em>. This serves two ends in broadening the audience, beyond the academy and the primarily English-speaking world. The collaboration of <em>Fennia</em> and <em>Versus</em> has already yielded multilingual popular science articles accessible in the contexts that the research concerns and in the societies where the authors work. Based on positive experiences and feedback, we are eager to continue similar efforts promoting linguistic plurality. As achieving these aims requires notable extra effort – from authors, editors, and the publisher – we call for support and commitment from the funding agencies and academic institutions that we rely on, along with the scholarly community whose voluntary work forms the basis of all activities in <em>Fennia</em>.</p> 2021-06-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Kirsi Pauliina Kallio, Anna Marjaana Heikkinen, James Riding